Metal Shapers and Planers Construction Setup and Operation

Metal shapers and planers were the work horses of the machine shop for many years. While they have been replaced by the modern CNC machines in most shops, they can do seemingly impossible jobs with inexpensive tool bits.

Not many modern machines can cut internal  keyways or splines , and fewer (if any) can do it with a tool bit that cost under a couple of bucks! 

Since they have fallen out of favor with the commercial shops, the pool of knowledge and skill in using these versatile machine is becoming increasingly smaller as time passes.

 

 

Table of Contents
 

PLANERS
Construction............................................................. 1
Double-Housing Planer ............................................. 3
Cutting Speed .......................................................... 3
Open Side Planer ..................................................... 4
Planer Drives ........................................................... 4
How to Operate a Planer ......................................... 7
How to Set the Planer Head .................................... 8
Clamping Accessories ............................................ 10
Stops ....................................................................... 11
Clamps .................................................................... 13
Planer Vise .............................................................. 13
Angle Plates ............................................................ 13
Planer Centers ......................................................... 15
Planer Tools Grinding and Setting .......................... 15
Cutting Tools for Planers ........................................ 16
General Slope of the Tool ....................................... 21
Grinding Tools ........................................................ 21
Setting the Tool ....................................................... 22
Depth of Cut ........................................................... 23
Steps in Setting Up a Job ........................................ 23
Care of a Planer ...................................................... 24
Safety Precautions .................................................. 25
Operations of a Typical Planer Job ......................... 25
 

SHAPERS
Crank Shaper .......................................................... 27
Hydraulic Shaper .................................................... 28
Vertical Shaper ........................................................ 28
How to Operate a Shaper ........................................ 30
Ram Adjustments .................................................... 31
Table Adjustments ................................................... 31
Machine Speed ........................................................ 32
Feed of Table ........................................................... 32
Shaper Sizes ............................................................ 32
Head Adjustments ................................................... 33
Testing Table for Parallelism .................................. 33
Methods of Holding Work ...................................... 35
Vise ......................................................................... 35
Table ....................................................................... 36
Angle Plates ........................................................... 36
Shaper Index Centers ............................................. 37
Parallels and Hold Downs ..................................... 37
Speed and Feed ...................................................... 37
Feed ....................................................................... 38
Determining the Cutting Speed ............................. 39
Shaper Tools .......................................................... 39
Suggestions for Shaper Work ................................ 43
Care of a Shaper .................................................... 44
Safety Measures .................................................... 44
Questions ............................................................... 44

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